In 1993, Spencer and Spencer defined competencies as behaviours or thought processes that lead to superior job performance. Based on their groundbreaking research, Teamscope's Competency Survey asks users to select nine competencies, and these insights are used to evaluate role suitability and team strengths.
Usually, there are a few core competencies that differentiate top performers in a given industry and job function. Systematically defining a role's critical competencies and using them as a framework for candidate evaluation is an objective way to shortlist candidates. Doing so brings clarity to the early stages of the hiring process, where the potential for ambiguity and bias is highest.
Spencer, L.M., & Spencer, S.M. (1993). “Competence at Work: Model for superior Performance”, Human Resource Development Quarterly Vol. 5, Issue 4, pp 391-395.